Microorganisms are all tiny creatures that are invisible or invisible to the naked eye. They are tiny and simple in structure. They usually use optical microscopes and electronics.
The microscope can be seen about 1000 times, but there are also some microorganisms that can be seen by the naked eye, like mushrooms, ganoderma lucidum and other fungi. Microorganisms are varied and they exist in their own unique ways for their own survival and reproduction. Maybe you have never seen microorganisms, but you know how is wine made? How is the digested food absorbed? How can the straw residue in the field become unrecognizable and even disappear? These are the contributions of microbes.
There are many kinds of microorganisms in the soil, including bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, algae and protozoa. The number is also very large. There are hundreds to hundreds of billions of soils in one gram of soil. Most of the soil microorganisms are beneficial to the growth of crops. They have a major impact on the formation and development of the soil, the material cycle, and the evolution of fertility. Of course, there are some pathogenic microorganisms that are not favored.
Also, there will be endless spring and autumn. So what do microorganisms work in the soil?
First, soil microbes can form soil structures.
Soil is not simply a simple combination of soil particles and fertilizers. As an active component of soil, soil microorganisms in their own lives, through the exchange of metabolically active oxygen and carbon dioxide, and secreted organic acids, etc. contribute to the soil particles. The formation of a large aggregate structure eventually results in a true soil. The floristic composition, biomass, and life activities of soil microbes are closely related to the formation and development of soil.
Second, the most significant effect of soil microorganisms is the decomposition of organic matter.
The most significant effect of soil microorganisms is the decomposition of organic matter, such as the roots and leaves of crops and organic fertilizers applied to the soil. Only through the action of soil microorganisms, can it rot and decompose, release nutrients for crop utilization, and form humus, Improve soil structure and ploughability.
Then, soil microorganisms can also decompose minerals, and metabolites of soil microorganisms can promote the dissolution of insoluble substances in the soil. For example, phosphorus bacteria can decompose phosphorus in phosphate rock. Potassium bacteria can decompose potassium in potassium ore to facilitate absorption and utilization of crops and increase soil fertility. In addition, the decomposition and utilization of urea can not be separated from the soil microorganisms. These soil microorganisms are like the fertilizer processing plants in the soil, and they process the mineral fertilizer in the soil into a form that the crop can absorb.
Third, Soil Microbes and Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen accounts for 4/5 of the air composition, but plants cannot use it directly. Some microorganisms can use their nitrogen fixation to convert nitrogen in the air into fixed nitrogen compounds that plants can use. With such soil microorganisms, it is equivalent to soil. With its own nitrogen fertilizer production plant.
Soil microorganisms living around the roots of plants can also regulate plant growth. Symbiotic microorganisms such as rhizobia, mycorrhizae, and fungi can directly supply nitrogen, phosphorus, and other mineral elements to the plants, as well as organic acids, amino acids, and vitamins. , Auxin and other organic nutrients promote plant growth. Soil microorganisms are closely related to plant root nutrition.
Fourth, there are mutual benefits between various microorganisms and they are also mutually antagonistic.
There are some resistant microorganisms in the soil. They can secrete antibiotics and inhibit the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms, so that it can prevent and reduce the damage of pathogenic microorganisms in the soil to crops. Therefore, microorganisms in the soil also have a negative side, such as pathogenic microorganisms.
Fifth, soil microorganisms can also explain the residual harmful substances in the soil.
Microorganisms can also degrade organic pesticides, municipal waste, and factory waste that remain in the soil. Microorganisms break them down into harmless or even harmless substances, reducing the risk of residual poisons. Of course, all of these functions are performed by different populations of microorganisms, and the realization of each function also requires a large number of microorganisms to work together.
Sixth, the future prospects of soil microbes are inestimable.
The microorganisms in the soil are so competent. You may think that if they can let them listen to human beings and want what they do, they just have to do what they can do. Well, yes, scientists think so. Nowadays, there are many examples of the use of microorganisms in medical and health care, industrial and agricultural production. Take the microbes in the soil. By developing and screening effective strains and cultivating highly effective strains, we can repair contaminated soils, produce fungicide, biopesticides and so on.
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